Welcome to the Halophile genome site
The color scheme is inspired by this awesome aerial photo of the salterns outside San Jose by Jerry Ting on Flickr.
You can download fasta files for each of the sequenced halophile genomes here.
In 2008 at the ASM meeting in Boston, a couple of savvy scientists noticed that Roche diagnostics had some FLX machines sitting idly on the meeting floor. Not wanting the machines to feel lonely or left out, they proposed a challenge to Roche: Try and sequence a genome or two at an ASM meeting. Not content with that challenge alone, Roche decided to up the ante, and agree only if there would be onsite annotation, analysis, and presentations of the data. The gauntlet had been laid down, faces had been slapped, and the game was afoot.
Nothing like this had been tried before. Could a machine be run at a National Meeting? Could genomes be sequenced and analyzed so fast you would miss it if you blinked? What would we sequence if we could sequence anything quickly?
Answering the first question last, we decided if we were going to sequence anything at all, it would be something that microbiologists would find interesting. Something that could be used for educational purposes, and something that might be more of a challenge than just sequencing E. coli again. It was decided that we would sequence some halophiles, salt-loving microbes that were grown in salterns like those shown in this photo of the solar salterns outside of San Jose (courtesy Jerry Ting, Flickr). In this photo, most of the colors come from Bacteria and Archaea that are growing in the salterns. The Archaea, in particular, are easy to grow, do not require extreme conditions, and grow in very high salt concentrations (about 2.5 M). Not much else will grow in those conditions, and so you reduce the chances of contamination.
Having chosen a bug, or eight, to sequence, we needed somewhere to get them from. Luckily for us (and everyone else), the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) has lots of halophiles to choose from. We chose several from their catolog, grew them, extracted their DNA, and sequenced the good ones!
Information about the genomes is available in the table, and can be downloaded as tab separated text
|ATCC Number||Name||Other names||Strain||NCBI TaxID||GenBank Genome Project ID||locus_tag||RAST job #||Submitted to GenBank||Number of Contigs||Genome Size||Isolated from|
|33799||Haloarcula sp 33799||Haloarcula californiae||BJGN-2||244363||39637||HaCal||6815||No||180||4420514||salt brine, Baja California, Mexico|
|33800||Haloarcula sp 33800||Haloarcula sinaiiensis||BJSG-2||35742||39639||HaSin||6816||No||10||4405164||salt brine, Israel|
|29715||Haloarcula vallismortis||J.F. 54||28442||39641||HaVal||4977||No||88||3930055||salt pools, Bad Water Point, Death Valley, CA|
|35960||Haloferax denitrificans||S1||35745||39643||HaDen||4975||No||38||3830000||Saltern, California|
|33500||Haloferax mediterranei||R-4||523841||39645||HaMed||6817||No||5||3894540||salt ponds, Alicante, Spain|
|BAA-1512||Haloferax mucosum||PA12||403181||39647||HaMuc||4972||No||29||3371699||Pastular mat from Hamelin pool, Shark Bay, Australia|
|BAA-897||Haloferax sulfurifontis||M6||255616||39649||HaSul||4971||No||36||3813939||microbial mats and mineral crusts near the sulfide and sulfur rich Zodletone spring, southwestern Oklahoma, USA|
|29605||Haloferax volcanii||DS2||309800||39651||HaVol||5025||No||5||4012900||shore mud, Dead Sea|
Click on any column header to sort the table
The raw sequence data was generated by Roche using pyrosequencing. Most of the genomes were only sequenced by shotgun sequencing, but two, Haloarcula sinaiiensis ATCC 33800 and Haloferax mediterranei ATCC 33500, a combination of shotgun sequencing and paired end sequencing was used. The shotgun sequencing data is included in with the paired-end sequencing to create a scaffold. We have provided the raw data if you would like to browse or download it!
You can browse the raw data for each genome, and right click to save any data
To annotate the genomes we used the Rapid Annotation Using Subsystems Technology RAST server. This is an automated annotation server from Argonne National Laboratory. To use this server, you can upload the fasta files, wait a few hours, and rtrieve a complete annoation. The server also provides the annotation in a variety of different formats which are available for download from this table.
We have the data in a variety of different formats. For most purposes you will probably either want to grab the GenBank or EMBL files. In the RAST, EC numbers are included in functional roles (aka product names or protein functions). However, some software croaks on this, and so we have also removed the EC numbers and provide those files too. GFF and GTF files are more for computer-computer transactions. The SEED organism directory is a tar-ball of the raw data that the RAST uses during the annotation.
The SEED organism directory contains all the files that the SEED uses in the annotation and analysis.
Per the UNIX convention, files that end ˜ are backup files of the file with the same name.
|Organism||EMBL||EMBL without EC numbers||GenBank||GenBank without EC numbers||GFF||GFF without EC numbers||GTF||GTF wwithout EC numbers||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloarcula californiae ATCC 33799||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloarcula sinaiiensis ATCC 33800||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloarcula vallismortis ATCC 29715||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloferax denitrificans ATCC 35960||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloferax mediteranei ATCC 33500||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloferax mucosum ATCC BAA-1512||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloferax sulfurifontis ATCC BAA-897||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
|Haloferax volcanii ATCC 29605||EMBL||EMBL (No ECs)||GenBank||GenBank (No ECs)||GFF||GFF (No ECs)||GTF||GTF (No ECs)||SEED Organism Directory|
We are collecting sources of the physical and chemical data for these strains. As we characterize them further we will update the data here.
Data from Allen MA. Et al. 2008. Haloferax elongans sp. Nov. and Haloferax mucosum sp. Nov., isolated from microbial mats from Hamelin Pool, Shark Bay, Australia. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 58: 798-802. [Abstract|Full text]
|Characteristic||Pigmentation||Motility||NaCl range (M)||NaCl optimum (M)||Minimum Mg2+||Temp range (°C)||Temp optimum (°C)||pH range||Generation time (hr)||Oxidase test||H2S formation from thiosulfate||Hydrolysis of Gelatin||Hydrolysis of Casein||Hydrolysis of Starch||Hydrolysis of Tween 80||Acid production on Mannose||Acid production on Galactose||Acid production on Xylose||Acid production on Sucrose||Rifampicin Resistant||Bactitracin Resistant||DNA G+C content (%mol)||DNA-DNA reassociation with SA5||DNA-DNA reassociation with PA12|
|SA5||red||rotating||1.7-5.1||2.6-3.4||0.2||30-55||53||7.0-9.0||0.53 (at 53°C)||±||-||+||+||+||+||-||-||-||+||+||+||61.4||100||30|
|PA12||pink-red||-||1.7-5.1||2.6-3.4||0.2||23-55||42-53||6.0-10||0.96 (at 48°C)||-||-||+||+||-||-||-||-||-||+||+||+||60.8||18||100|
|Hfx. Mediterranei||pink||+||1.3-4.7||2.9||0.02||25-45||35-37||ND||1.2||+||-||+||+||+||+||+||ND||+||+||-||-||60||20 (19)||14 (15)|
|Hfx. volcanii||red-orange||rotating||1.0-4.5||1.7-2.5||0.02||ND||45||ND||1.83||+||+||-||-||-||-||-||+||+||+||ND||ND||63.4||29 (18)||29 (17)|
|Hfx. Denitrificans||pink||+||1.8-5.1||4.3||ND||10.0-40.0||37||5.0-9.0||ND||+||+||-||-||-||+||ND||-||+||-||ND||ND||64.5||20 (27)||22 (16)|
|Hfx. Gibbonsii||orange-red||+||1.5-5.2||2.5-4.3||0.2||25-55||35-40||5.0-8.0||ND||+||+||+||+||-||+||+||+||+||+||-||-||61.8||25 (23)||30 (20)|
|Hfx. Sulfurifontis||salmon pink||-||1.0-5.2||2.1-2.6||0.001||18-50||32-37||4.5-9.0||ND||+||+||+||-||-||+||-||+||+||+||-||+||60.5||25 (33)||19 (21)|
|Hfx. Lucentense||Pink||+||1.8-5.1||4.3||ND||10.0-40.0||37||5.0-9||ND||+||+||-||-||-||+||ND||-||+||-||ND||ND||64.5||20 (27)||22 (16)|
|Hfx. Alexandrinus||Red||-||1.7-5.2||4.3||0.33||20-55||37||5.5-7.5||ND||+||+||+||-||-||+||-||-||+||+||+||-||59.5||24 (19)||24 (32)|
|Hfx. Prahovense||Beige- orange||-||2.5-5.2||3.5||ND||23-51||38-48||6.0-8.5||ND||+||+||-||-||+||+||ND||-||-||-||-||+||63.7||20 (25)||21 (15)|
|Hfx. Larsenii||Orange-red||+||1.0-4.8||2.2-3.4||0.005||25-55||42-45||6.0-8.5||ND||+||+||+||-||+||+||-||-||-||weakly +||-||-||62.2||22 (19)||24 (22)|
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Data from: Elshahed MS. Et al. 2004. Haloferax sulfurifontis sp. Nov., a halophilic archaeon isolated froma sulfide-and sulfur-rich spring. Int J Syst Evol Microbiol 54: 2275-2279. [Abstract|Full text]
|Characteristic||Motility||NaCl range (M)||NaCl optimum (M)||Cell stability (M NaCl)||Temp range (°C)||Temp optimum (°C)||Optimum pH||Anaerobic nitrate reduction||Indole production||H2S formation from thiosulfate||Hydrolysis of Gelatin||Hydrolysis of Casein||Hydrolysis of Starch||Hydrolysis of Tween 80||Rifampicin Resistant||DNA G+C content (mol%)||DNA-DNA hybridization values|
Click on any column header to sort the table